Vowel Loss

Apocopation

Apocopate: To cut off or drop the last letter or part of a word.

A few Turkish nouns lose their final vowel [apocopate] when a suffix which starts with a vowel is added to the noun.

Example of Apocopation
Adding the suffix -im (my) to the word izin, which means leave.
izin → leave
izn-im → my leave.
[NOT izin-im]
The final vowel of the noun root is dropped when adding a suffix which begins in a vowel.

Adding a vowel DOES affect the Noun

burun nose → burnum my nose →
burnumda on my nose →
[burn-um-da]
ağız mouth → ağzı his mouth →
ağzında in his mouth →
[ağz-ı-nda]
beyin brain → beynimden from my brain →
[beyn-im-den]
kayıp loss → kaybımızdan from our loss →
[kayb-ımız-dan]
Erkek arkadaşımın ismi Mehmet’tir. My boy-friend’s name is Mehmet
[ism-i = his name]
The suffix -i his affects the noun isim name
Ali’nin alnı terliyor Ali’s forehead is sweating
[Ali’nin aln-ı]
The word [aln-i “forehead”] is in the possessive relationship: this affects the noun alın shortening it to aln

Adding a consonant does NOT affect the Noun

izindeyim I am on leave
[izin-de-yim]
The vowel of izin is not lost as the first suffix -de begins with a consonant.
ağızda in the mouth
[ağız-da]
beyinden from the brain
[beyin-den]
oğul from the son
[oğul-dan]
kayıptan from the loss
[kayıp-tan]

Examples Turkish vowel loss with the possessive adjective:

fikir → fikrim my idea
keyif → keyfi his/her joy
oğul → oğlumuz our son
boyun → boynu his neck
nakil → naklin your (sing.) transport
gönül → gönlüm my desire
isim → ismim my name
nakit → nakdiniz your (plur.) cash
kayıp → kaybınızden from your loss
The rules of Consonant Mutation are still observed in the apocopated noun.
Exampled by the final consonant nakit cash has mutated to its soft form -d
kaybı his loss has apocopated from kayıp.
Some Single Syllable Words do not soften their root vowel:
vakit (arb.) time, occasion →
vaktim my time

Turkish Apocopating Noun List

The following nouns lose an internal vowel from the noun stem when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.
Many of these words are in constant daily use.