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Vowels – Gravity Turkish


The Eight Vowels of Turkish

There are eight vowels in Turkish and they are divided into two groups:

The A-UnDotted Vowels: A I O U
The UnDotted Vowels are produced nearer the throat as in English.

The E-Dotted Vowels: E İ Ö Ü
The Dotted Vowels are produced at the the front of the mouth similar to French pronunciation.

Turkish Vowel Harmony A ↔ E

To form plurals we have a choice to add either -lar or -ler to the word. The plural suffix is chosen from -ler or -lar to mirror the final vowel of its noun. All other suffixes containing a or e follow this Vowel Harmony rule.

Plural of the Turkish A-UnDotted Vowel Group

The plural suffix is -lar to words whose final vowel is one of the A-UnDotted Vowels.
Final vowel -a:
balta axe → baltalar [balta-lar] axes

Final vowel -ı:
kapı door → kapılar [kapı-lar] doors

Final vowel -o:
palto overcoat → paltolar [palto-lar] overcoats

Final vowel -u:
boncuk bead → boncuklar [boncuk-lar] beads

Plural of the Turkish E-Dotted Vowel Group

The plural suffix -ler to words whose final vowel is one of the E-Dotted Vowels.

Final vowel -e:
ev house → evler [ev-ler] houses

Final vowel -i:
kedi cat → kediler [kedi-ler] cats

Final vowel -ö:
göz eye → gözler [göz-ler] eyes

Final vowel -ü:
ödül award, prize → ödüller [ödül-ler] awards
This echoing of the final vowel by the suffix is called Vowel Harmony.

Exceptions to Turkish Vowel Harmony Rules

There are a very few exceptions to this rule where the suffix does not echo vowel harmony exactly, for example:
saat hour, clock → saatler hours, clocks
harf letter (of alphabet) → harfler letter (alph.)

All exceptions to the rule of pluralizing nouns in Turkish also constitute exceptions when other suffixes are attached to them. The word rol role becomes roller roles. This is contrary to the general rule. These words like rol also constitute exceptions when case suffixes are attached, as follows:

Bu rolü [rol-ü] almak istiyorum.
I want to take (on) this role.

Bu rolden [rol-den] çok bıktım.
I am really fed up with this rôle.

Bu rolde [rol-de] bir sürü aksaklık var.
There is something wrong in this rôle.
Bu role [rol-e] hiç alışamadım.
I could not get used to this rôle at all.
Some Suffixed Exceptions
kalp heart
kalpler hearts
kalbi heart (obj.)
kalbin of the heart
kalbe to the heart
kalpten from the heart
harf Letter (alpha.)
harfler Letters
harfi Letter (obj.)
harfin of the letter
harfe to the letter
harften from the letter
There are other words from Arabic or foreign imported words which exhibit this irregularity.
Vowel Harmony of Turkish Suffixes
All words with their last vowel in the A-UnDotted Group take -lar as their plural.
This rule applies for all suffixes which contain a.
Those words with an E-Dotted Group Vowel take -ler as their plural.
This rule applies for all suffixes which contain e.
Common and important words which are in constant use: in, on, at, from, to, with, etc. are suffixes in Turkish.
They must harmonize with final vowel of the word they modify.
Turkish Static Position (locative) Suffix
The static location suffix -de/-da in, on, at
This suffix t shows concrete place (location):
The plural adds two suffixes -ler + -de or -lar + -da and tagged them altogether to make one word in Turkish.
adamda on the man
adamlarda on the men
kedide on the cat
kedilerde on the cats
evde at home
evlerde at the houses
kapıda at the door
kapılarda at/by the doors
köprüde on the bridge
köprülerde on the bridges
odada in the room
odalarda in the rooms
I am in the room.
Ali bey, evdeymiş.
Ali bey must be at home.
Bahçedeki çocuklar top ile oynuyorlar.
The children (who are) in the garden are playing with a ball.
For animate subjects the verb tense suffix must agree:
Both the subject and the verb are singular or both subject and verb are plural.
Çocuklar oynuyorlar. The children are playing.
[subject children is animate so verb is also plural.]
For inanimate subjects, the verb should be always singular.
Yapraklar düşüyor. Leaves are falling.
[subject leaves is inanimate so verb is singular.]
Turkish Motion Away (ablative) Suffix -den -dan
The motion away suffix -den/-dan from, by, via, through
adamdan from the man
adamlardan from the men
kediden from the cat
kedilerden from the cats
evden from home
evlerden from the houses
kapıdan from the door
kapılardan from the doors
köprüden from the bridge
köprülerden from the bridges
odadan from the room
odalardan from the rooms
Turkish Motion Toward (dative) Suffix -e -a
The motion toward suffix -(y)e/-(y)a to, towards
Buffer letter -y is used between vowels.
adama to the man
adamlara to the men
kediye to the cat
kedilere to the cats
eve to home
evlere to the houses
kapıya to the door
kapılara to the doors
köprüye to the bridge
köprülere to the bridges
odaya to the room
odalara to the rooms
Turkish Vowel Harmony I ↔ İ U ↔ Ü
There are two different forms of I (İ) and U (Ü) in Turkish.
The UnDotted Forms of I or U follow the A-UnDotted group A I O U
The Dotted Forms of İ or Ü follow the E-Dotted group E İ Ö Ü
Suffixes containing a can have two forms: a or e.
The the suffix -den -dan from was shown as an example.
Suffixes containg the generic letter -I has four forms -i -ı -u -ü.
The suffix -im my harmonizes its own vowel to any of -i, -ı, -u, ü to mirror the last vowel of the word it is suffixed to.
All suffixes with an internal -i- vowel follow this vowel harmony.
Suffıx -im
The suffix -im follows words whose last vowel is -e or -i.
ev house
evim [ev-im] my house
evlerim [ev-ler-im] my houses
çit hedge
çiti [çit-i] his hedge
çitleri [çit-ler-i] his hedges
Suffıx -ım
The suffix -ım follows words whose last vowel is -a or -ı.
raf shelf
rafın [raf-ın] your shelf
rafların [raf-lar-ın] your shelves
kız girl / daughter
kızım [kız-ım] my girl
kızlarım [kız-lar-ım] my girls
Suffix -üm
The suffix -üm follows words whose last vowel is -ö or -ü.
göz eye
gözüm [göz-üm] my eye
gözlerim [gözler-im] my eyes
gül rose
gülüm [gül-üm] my rose
güllerim [güller-im] my roses
The plurals gözlerim [göz-ler-im] and güllerim take the -im suffix.
[NOT the -üm suffix as in the singular]
They immediately follow the final vowel -e of the plural -ler.
Suffix -um
The suffix-um follows words whose last vowel is -o or -u.
yol road
yolunuz [yol-unuz] your road
yollarınız [yol-lar-ınız] your roads
jeton token, jeton
jetonum [jeton-um] my token, my jeton
jetonlarım [jetonlar-ım] my tokens, my jetons
okul school
okulları [okul-ları] their school(s)
okulları [okul-lar-ı] his schools
oyun game
oyunum [oyun-um] my game
oyunlarım [oyun-lar-ım] my games
The plurals jetonlarım and oyunlarım take the -ım suffix.
[not the -um suffix as in the singular]
They immediately follow the final vowel -a of the plural -lar.
The Rule for Words ending in a Vowel
The Vowel of the Suffix -im -ım -um -üm my is dropped to prevent two vowels occurring together.
[the root word itself is preserved.]
baba father → babam my father
[NOT: babaım]
baban your father
[NOT: babaın]
kedi cat → kedim my cat
[NOT: kediim]
kedimiz our cat
[NOT: kediimiz]
palto overcoat → paltom my overcoat
[NOT: paltoum]
paltonuz your (pl.) overcoat
[NOT: paltonuz]
When adding -im my (or the other Possessive Adjectives) to a word which ends in a vowel:
Only the shortened suffix -m, -n, -miz, -niz is added.
This prevents two vowels occurring together.
The third person singular suffix a bare vowel -i
It uses buffer letter -s- in order to keep two vowels apart.
It preseves the original root word and decomes ‑is ‑sı‑sü ‑su :
şapka hat
şapkam my hat
şapkası his/her hat
[not: şapka-ı]
soru question
sorum my question
sorusu his/her question
[not: soru-u]
The Complete Rules of Turkish Vowel Harmony
A – E Harmony
UnDotted A I O U
are followed by
A UnDotted suffix
Dotted E İ Ö Ü
are followed by
E Dotted suffix
I – İ Harmony
UnDotted A or I
are followed by
I UnDotted suffix
Dotted E or İ
are followed by
İ Dotted suffix
U – Ü Harmony
UnDotted O or U
are followed by
U UnDotted suffix
Dotted Ö or Ü
are followed by
Ü Dotted suffix